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Why Cite?

  • Adds credibility to your work
  • Offers a research trail
  • Provides evidence for your argument
  • Gives credit where credit is due!

When to Cite?

Whenever you include a word, phrase, or idea from a source.  That source can include a web page, classroom lecture, an interview with your Uncle Pete, a quote or summary from a book, magazine, etc.
Even a single word from someone else, when included in your own essay, needs to be set off with quotation marks and then cited.

There are several options....ask your professor what they prefer!

MLA - Modern Language Association

  • Usually used when writing about humanities--philosophy, history, literature, rhetoric and communication
  • 2 parts of MLA citation: in the body of your document and in the works cited list


In the body of your paper:

The first gambling Web site appeared in 1995, and online gambling has since become the most lucrative Internet business (Will 92).


In your works cited list:
Will, George F. "Electronic Morphine." Newsweek 25 Nov. 2002: 92.

For more information on using MLA, click here.


APA - American Psychological Association

  • Usually used when writing about anthropology, education, linguistics, political science, psychology and sociology
  • Include a page header at the top of every page
  • Include a title page
  • Usually include an abstract
  • 2 parts of APA citations: in the body of your document and in the references list

In the body of your paper:
Yanovski and Yanovski (2002) reported that “the current state of the treatment for obesity is similar to the state of the treatment of hypertension several decades ago” (p. 600).


In your references list:
Yanovski, S. Z., & Yanovski, J. A. (2002). Drug therapy: Obesity. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 591-602.

For more information on using APA, click here.


Chicago 

  • Usually used when writing about history, social sciences or humanities.  Oldest type of citation
  • 3 parts of Chicago citation: in text superscript, a note at the bottom of the page detailing information about the reference, and a bibliography 


In the body with a superscript:
He concluded that the book "will stimulate thought about important questions. Swallowed whole, its effects would be disastrous.1

In the notes list at the bottom of the page:
1. John Maynard Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," Nature 393 (1998): 639-40.

In the bibliography:
Smith, John Maynard. "The Origin of Altruism." Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

For more information on using Chicago style, click here.

 

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